Identification of the Causes of Loss and Waste of Food at the Stage of Transportation

The efficiency of the goods transport process is conditioned by many factors. These include selection of the appropriate type of transport packaging, type and condition of the transport, location and protection of the goods in the cargo space, the availability of handling equipment and its condition, storage space infrastructure (e.g., the presence or absence of a ramp or slipways on the routes), as well as adapting the tactics of driving to the type of transported goods. The lack of the necessary attention or commitment may result in a reduction of the quality of transported goods or a delay in delivery.

The above Ishikawa diagram makes it possible to identify potential causes of product losses during the transportation operations.

One of the causes of losses during transportation is the human factor, i.e., man/people. The appropriate qualifications and high level of knowledge of the employees make them capable of making difficult decisions, which may include decisions aimed at the improvement of work efficiency, and consequently reduce the level of losses. An essential element in the process of reducing the risk of errors is also compliance with applicable work procedures and continuous improvement.

The second identified category of the causes of food loss and waste at the stage of transportation is the environment. Transportation (including the time of delivery) of food articles must be carried out so as not to reduce its durability. The factors determining the growth rate of microorganisms responsible for the spoilage of transported food articles, and thus their durability include temperature and ambient humidity. As an example, milk and most milk products require a continuous refrigeration chain from production to consumption. Therefore, the carrier is obliged to maintain a suitably low temperature during transportation. To maintain the required low temperature of the transported products, the processes of loading and unloading to/from the means of transportation should be carried out very efficiently. The maintenance of appropriate conditions during transshipment operations during the hot season is particularly important. At that point, prolonged loading/unloading leads to an undesired increase in the temperature in the cargo area. Environmental conditions are not so significant when the ambient temperature is low and transient long-term handling processes do not have a significant effect on the temperature inside the means of transportation. The necessity of transporting food over greater distances increases the number of intermediaries. As a consequence, losses can occur if the open-door time is exceeded during the unloading of the product.

Another important category, potentially determining the loss of food at the transportation is management, i.e., the inadequate work management processes involving both loading and personnel and managers responsible for the organization of transportation. The quality unloading personnel and managers responsible for the organization of transportation of their work depends on the training carried out by appropriate institutions. To minimize the losses at the stage of transportation, it is important to organize the processes of loading, circulation of the means of transportation and unloading of the transported cargo. It is important to adjust the route accordingly, as the improper placement of goods together with high vibration during transportation causes mechanical damage of the packages. Today, the distance between primary production plants and food consumption areas is increasing, resulting in the necessity of transporting food products over greater distances, maintaining the refrigerated chain for a longer period of time (for products of animal, plant and frozen origin) [25]. A transportation period that is too long, that is, improper logistics, results a longer period of time (for products of animal, plant and frozen origin) [25]. A transportation period for perishable products. Meanwhile, consumers buying food products are increasingly paying close shorter shelf life. This element is particularly important for perishable products. Meanwhile, consumers buying food products are increasingly paying close attention to the information on the label [26]. Nearly 40% of people indicated that they read the information on the label in the grocery store [27]. As shown by Bandara et al. [28], the information most frequently sought on the label o

Another important criterion of the adapted Ishikawa diagram are the methods (Figure 1). According to Hammond et al. [29], the processes of transportation and storage of food are closely interrelated. Transporting food over long distances requires the prevention of spoiling during the

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